AZO,--111139 The European encroachment on Native tribes had been happening since Spanish Juan Ponce de LeOn (1474-1521) first the North American mainland in 1513. of the worst inequities the tribes suffered
occurred three centuries later as a result of the Indian Removal Act passed by Congress in 1830.
The Indian Removal Act allowed President Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) to take Indian land east of the Mississippi in exchange for lands to the west. To take control of the land, the Cherokee Nation was led into a forced march, now called The Trail of Tears, in the winter of 1838-39.
About 4,000 Native Americans died on the march from Georgia to the Indian Territory, in present-day Oklahoma. As Americans settled farther west, they further encroached on the Indian's lands; the Indian Territory was subsumed by the United States in 1907 when Oklahoma became a state. Today the American Indian Movement continues to fight for reparations and the return of Indian lands.